StatementsThe batch update facility allows a
Statementobject to submit a set of heterogeneous update commands together as a single unit, or batch, to the underlying DBMS. In the example below all of the update operations required to insert a new employee into a fictitious company database are submitted as a single batch.
In the example, autocommit mode is disabled to prevent the driver from committing the transaction when// turn off autocommit
Statement stmt = con.createStatement();
stmt.addBatch("INSERT INTO employees VALUES (1000, 'Joe Jones')");
stmt.addBatch("INSERT INTO departments VALUES (260, 'Shoe')");
stmt.addBatch("INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (1000, 260)");
// submit a batch of update commands for execution
int updateCounts = stmt.executeBatch();
Statement.executeBatch()is called. Disabling autocommit allows an application to decide whether or not to commit the transaction in the event that an error occurs and some of the commands in a batch cannot be processed successfully. For this reason, autocommit should always be turned off when batch updates are done. The commit behavior of
executeBatchis always implementation defined when an error occurs and autocommit is true.
To keep our discussion of batch updates general, we define the term element to refer to an individual member of a batch. As we have seen, an element in a batch is just a simple command when a
Statement object is being used. Although we are focusing on using
Statement objects to do batch updates in this section, the discussion that follows applies to
CallableStatement objects, as well.
In the new JDBC API, a
Statement object has the ability to keep track of a list of commands -or batch-that can be submitted together for execution. When a
Statement object is created, its associated batch is empty-the batch contains no elements. The
Statement.addBatch() method adds an element to the calling statement's batch. The method
Statement.clearBatch() (not shown above) can be called to reset a batch if the application decides not to submit a batch of commands that has been constructed for a statement.
Statement.executeBatch() method submits a statement's batch to the underlying data source for execution. Batch elements are executed serially (at least logically) in the order in which they were added to the batch. When all of the elements in a batch execute successfully,
executeBatch() returns an integer array containing one entry for each element in the batch. The entries in the array are ordered according to the order in which the elements were processed (which, again, is the same as the order in which the elements were originally added to the batch). An entry in the array may have the following values:
- If the value of an array entry is greater than or equal to zero, then the batch element was processed successfully and the value is an update count indicating the number of rows in the database that were effected by the element's execution.
- A value of -2 indicates that a element was processed successfully, but that the number of effected rows is unknown.
executeBatch()closes the calling
Statementobject's current result set if one is open. The statement's internal list of batch elements is reset to empty once
executeBatch()returns. The behavior of the
executemethods is implementation defined when a statement's batch is non-empty.
ExecuteBatch() throws a
BatchUpdateException if any of the elements in the batch fail to execute properly, or if an element attempts to return a result set. Only DDL and DML commands that return a simple update count may be executed as part of a batch. When a
BatchUpdateException is thrown, the
BatchUpdateException.getUpdateCounts() method can be called to obtain an integer array of update counts that describes the outcome of the batch execution.
A JDBC driver may or may not continue processing the remaining elements in a batch once execution of an element in a batch fails. However, a JDBC driver must always provide the same behavior when used with a particular DBMS. For example, a driver cannot continue processing after a failure for one batch, and not continue processing for another batch.
If a driver stops processing after the first failure, the array returned by
BatchUpdateException.getUpdateCounts() will always contain fewer entries than there were elements in the batch. Since elements are executed in the order that they are added to the batch, if the array contains N elements, this means that the first N elements in the batch were processed successfully when
executeBatch() was called.
When a driver continues processing in the presence of failures, the number of elements, N, in the array returned by
BatchUpdateException.getUpdateCounts()is always equal to the number of elements in the batch. The following additional array value is returned when a
BatchUpdateException is thrown and the driver continues processing after a failure:
- A value of -3 indicates that the command or element failed to execute successfully. This value is also returned for elements that could not be processed for some reason-such elements fail implicitly.
A JDBC technology based application can distinguish a JDBC driver that continues processing after a failure from one that does not by examining the size of the array returned by
BatchUpdateException.getUpdateCounts(). A JDBC driver that continues processing always returns an array containing one entry for each element in the batch. A JDBC driver that does not continue processing after a failure will always return an array whose number of entries is less than the number of elements in the batch.
PreparedStatementsAn element in a batch consists of a parameterized command and an associated set of parameters when a
PreparedStatementis used. The batch update facility is used with a
PreparedStatementto associate multiple sets of input parameter values with a single
PreparedStatementobject. The sets of parameter values together with their associated parameterized update command can then be sent to the underlying DBMS engine for execution as a single unit.
The example below inserts two new employee records into a database as a single batch. The
PreparedStatement.setXXX() methods are used to create each parameter set (one for each employee), while the
PreparedStatement.addBatch() method adds a set of parameters to the current batch.
Finally,// turn off autocommit
PreparedStatement stmt = con.prepareStatement(
"INSERT INTO employees VALUES (?, ?)");
stmt.setString(2, "Kelly Kaufmann");
stmt.setString(2, "Bill Barnes");
// submit the batch for execution
int updateCounts = stmt.executeBatch();
PreparedStatement.executeBatch()is called to submit the updates to the DBMS. Calling
PreparedStatement.executeBatch()clears the statement's associated list of batch elements. The array returned by
PreparedStatement.executeBatch()contains an element for each set of parameters in the batch, similar to the case for
Statement. Each element either contains an update count or the generic `success' indicator (-2).
Error handling in the case of
PreparedStatement objects is the same as error handling in the case of
Statement objects. Some drivers may stop processing as soon as an error occurs, while others may continue processing the rest of the batch. As for
Statement, the number of elements in the array returned by
BatchUpdateException.getUpdateCounts() indicates whether or not the driver continues processing after a failure. The same three array element values are possible, as for
Statement. The order of the entries in the array is the same order as the order in which elements were added to the batch.
Callable StatementsThe batch update facility works the same with
CallableStatementobjects as it does with
PreparedStatementobjects. Multiple sets of input parameter values may be associated with a callable statement and sent to the DBMS together. Stored procedures invoked using the batch update facility with a callable statement must return an update count, and may not have out or inout parameters. The
CallableStatement.executeBatch()method should throw an exception if this restriction is violated. Error handling is analogous to